, In 132, the revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from central Judea across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). In 355, however, the relations with the Roman rulers improved, upon the rise of Emperor Julian, the last of the Constantinian dynasty, who, unlike his predecessors, defied Christianity.  Legio X Fretensis sustained heavy casualties during the revolt. Cave of Horror is the name given to Cave 8 in the Judaean Desert of Israel, where the remains of Jewish refugees from the Bar Kokhba revolt were found.  The inscription is considered to greatly strengthen the claim that indeed the emperor visited Jerusalem that year, supporting the traditional claim that Hadrian's visit was among the main causes of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, and not the other way around. Eusebius of Caesarea wrote that Jewish Christians were killed and suffered "all kinds of persecutions" at the hands of rebel Jews when they refused to help Bar Kokhba against the Roman troops. He had active support of most of the rabbis – in contradistinction to the first two revolts against Rome. All (10) Videos (3) Events (2) Book (1) 10 results. Later on it is proposed by some historians that Legio XXII Deiotariana was sent from Arabia Petraea, but was ambushed and massacred on its way to Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), and possibly disbanded as a result. , The size of the Roman army amassed against the rebels was much larger than that commanded by Titus sixty years earlier - nearly one third of the Roman army took part in the campaign against Bar Kokhba. The Israel Antiques Authority's archaeologists Moran Hagbi and Dr. Joe Uziel speculated that "It is possible that a Roman soldier from the Tenth Legion found the coin during one of the battles across the country and brought it to their camp in Jerusalem as a souvenir. , Several historians, notably W. Eck of the U-ty of Cologne, theorized that the Tel Shalem arch depicted a major battle between Roman armies and Bar Kokhba's rebels in Bet Shean valley, thus extending the battle areas some 50 km northwards from Judea.  Roman casualties were also considered heavy – XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after serious losses. , Over the years, two schools formed in the analysis of the Revolt. The fact that Galilee retained its Jewish character after the end of the revolt has been taken as an indication by some that either the revolt was never joined by Galilee or that the rebellion was crushed relatively early there compared to Judea. Jewish messianism was abstracted and spiritualized, and rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious and conservative. Judaea was almost completely devastated, and Jewish life shifted from Judaea to the Galilee. While some claim further resistance was broken quickly, others argue that pockets of Jewish rebels continued to hide with their families into the winter months of late 135 and possibly even spring 136.  A rabbinic version of this story claims that Hadrian planned on rebuilding the Temple, but that a malevolent Samaritan convinced him not to. Mismanagement of the province during the early 2nd century might well have led to the proximate causes of the revolt, largely bringing governors with clear anti-Jewish sentiments to run the province. The Bar Kokhba revolt (Hebrew: מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire. The slogans on the Bar Kokhba coins proclaimed the ‘Freedom of Israel’ and ‘For the Freedom of Jerusalem’. Sort by: Related Topics. In 114 C.E.  Were the claim true it has been conjectured that Hadrian, as a Hellenist, would have viewed circumcision as an undesirable form of mutilation. This raised the hopes of the Jewish people initially. , Until 1951, Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage was the sole archaeological evidence for dating the revolt. Instead of a procurator, they installed a praetor as a governor and stationed an entire legion, the X Fretensis, in the area. ... Maccabean revolt. The stage was set for another confrontation. THE BAR KOKHBA REVOLT: THE ROMAN POINT OF VIEW* By WERNER ECK. Bar Kokhba Judaea’s Leaderless Revolt Against Rome The Second Temple was destroyed in the course of the Judaean Revolt (66–73 C.E.)  Although Jewish Christians regarded Jesus as the Messiah and did not support Bar Kokhba, they were barred from Jerusalem along with the other Jews.  In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea or Ancient Israel, Emperor Hadrian wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina. city. , According to some views, one of the crucial battles of the war took place near Tel Shalem in the Beit She'an valley, near what is now identified as the legionary camp of Legio VI Ferrata.  By destroying the association of Jews with Judea and forbidding the practice of the Jewish faith, Hadrian aimed to root out a nation that had inflicted heavy casualties on the Roman Empire. The first coin issued at the mint of Aelia Capitolina about 130/132 CE. Similarly, under the argument to ensure the prosperity of the newly founded Roman colonia of Aelia Capitolina, Jews were forbidden to enter, except on the day of Tisha B'Av.. Lindsay Powell's book, The Bar Kokhba War AD 132–135 tells the story of the last Jewish revolt over the Roman Empire. Hostilities broke out in 132. The 10th legion had to evacuate its fortress at Jerusalem.  In 132, the revolt, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Elasar, quickly spread from Modi'in across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. While by no means com… The imperial coinage pronounced the aduentus of the Emperor to be a cheerful and blessed event in much the same terms as in other parts of the Empire.' Especially violent were the third and the fourth revolts, which resulted in near annihilation of the Samaritan community. At first sympathetic towards the Jews, Hadrian promised to rebuild the Temple, but the Jews felt betrayed when they found out that he intended to build a temple dedicated to Jupiter upon the ruins of the Second Temple. As well as leading the revolt, he was regarded by many Jews as the Messiah, who would restore their national independence. Onias III … Fighting was brutal and losses were heavy on both sides. The Bar Kochba Revolt was in response to Hadrian's plan to rebuild Jerusalem as a Roman _____ , not a Jewish center. The Jews prepared to rebel until Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah calmed them. Shimon Bar-Kokhba was the leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome between 132 and 135 C.E. Eccl." By that time the number of Roman troops in Judea stood at nearly 80,000 - a number still inferior to rebel forces, who were also better familiar with the terrain and occupied strong fortifications. Several elements are believed to have contributed to the rebellion; changes in administrative law, the diffuse presence of Romans, alterations in agricultural practice with a shift from landowning to sharecropping, the impact of a possible period of economic decline, and an upsurge of nationalism, the latter influenced by similar revolts among the Jewish communities in Egypt, Cyrenaica and Mesopotamia during the reign of Trajan in the Kitos War.  The Church Fathers and rabbinic literature emphasize the role of Rufus in provoking the revolt. The Talmud, for instance, refers to Bar Kokhba as "Ben-Kusiba," a derogatory term used to indicate that he was a false Messiah. In 363, not long before Julian left Antioch to launch his campaign against Sassanian Persia, he ordered the Jewish Temple rebuilt in his effort to foster religions other than Christianity. , As noted above, XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after serious losses. In 438 CE, when the Empress Eudocia removed the ban on Jews' praying at the Temple site, the heads of the Community in Galilee issued a call "to the great and mighty people of the Jews" which began: "Know that the end of the exile of our people has come!" Ancient Roman historian Dio Cassius, one of the few sources we … - Eventually, the Roman army took back Jerusalem from the Jews. This is how the Jewish Encyclopedia in the Article 'Bar Kokhba and Bar Kokhba War' describes the situation before the Revolt: Even after R. Joshua ben Hanahiah succeeded in preventing the Jewish Revolt, the Jews remained quiet only on the surface; in reality, for over fifteen years they prepared for a struggle against Rome. The Romans lost as many as two legions. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea or Ancient Israel, he wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina. The Jews who were left tried to return to as normal a life as possible. Relations between the Jews in the region and the Roman Empire continued to be complicated. The first conflict, known as the Jewish War or the First Revolt, was fought from A.D. 66 to 70; the second conflict, known as the Bar Kokhba War, raged from A.D. 132 to 135.  The Jewish communities of Judea were devastated to an extent which some scholars describe as a genocide. The Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid numerous mistakes that had plagued the first Great Jewish Revolt sixty years earlier. - Simeon Bar Kochba and his army were finally defeated at the city of Beitar.  The nickname "Cave of Horror" was given after the skeletons of 40 men, women and children were discovered. The Romans issued a coin inscribed Aelia Capitolina. The Jews had the first one from which to learn and they were determined to do things differently. But they killed about 500,000. Its commander was Yeshua ben Galgula, likely Bar Kokhba's second in command. Modern historians view the Bar Kokhba Revolt as having decisive historic importance. The 2013 discovery of the military camp of Legio VI Ferrata near Tel Megiddo, and ongoing excavations there may shed light to extension of the rebellion to the northern valleys. In the post-rabbinical era, the Bar Kokhba Revolt became a symbol of valiant national resistance. Jewish communities of Galilee who sent militants to the revolt in Judea were largely spared total destruction, though they did suffer persecutions and massive executions. In the compound republic of america, the power surrendered by the people is first divided between two distinct governments, and then the portion allotted to each subdivided among distinct and separate departments. 2, "Greek Papyri", edited by Naphtali Lewis; "Aramaic and Nabatean Signatures and Subscriptions", edited by. War of Quietus.  The Church Fathers and rabbinic literature emphasize the role of Rufus, governor of Judea, in provoking the revolt. The governor of Judea, Tineius Rufus, performed the foundation ceremony, which involved ploughing over the designated city limits. Some of the Judean survivors resettled in Galilee, with some rabbinical families gathering in Sepphoris. Byzantine control of the region was finally lost to Muslim Arab armies in 637 CE, when Umar ibn al-Khattab completed the conquest of Akko.  One interpretation involves the visit in 130 CE of Hadrian to the ruins of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. Killing more than half a million Jews and destroying almost a thousand villages, the Bar Kochba Revolt (132-35) was a major event in Jewish history and a blotch on the reputation of the good emperor Hadrian.The revolt was named for a man called Shimon, on coins, Bar Kosibah, on papyrus, Bar Kozibah, on rabbinic literature, and Bar Kokhba, in Christian writing. However, bar Kokhba obviously was not the messiah because things didn't turn out any better for the Jews in this war than in the first. The defense system of Judean towns and villages was based mainly on hideout caves, which were created in large numbers in almost every population center. Bar Kokhba There are some hints in Rabbinical sources concerning the characteristics and personality of Bar Kokhba who was the military leader of the Jewish Revolt against the Roman Empire. Gargilius Antiques may have preceded Rufus during the 120s. By early 136 however, it is clear that the revolt was defeated. In the belief of restoration to come, in the early 7th century the Jews made an alliance with the Persians, joining the Persian invasion of Palaestina Prima in 614 to overwhelm the Byzantine garrison, and gaining autonomous rule over Jerusalem. . Shalev-Hurvitz, V. Oxford University Press 2015. p235, "Ancient Inscription Identifies Gargilius Antiques as Roman Ruler on Eve of Bar Kochva Revolt", A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, "Roman provincial coin of Hadrian [image]", "The Bar Kochba Revolt: A Disaster Celebrated by Zionists on Lag Ba'Omer", "Julian the Apostate and the Holy Temple", Evans, J.A.S. This thesis will explore the immediate causes of the Bar Kokhba revolt and compare them to other provincial revolts in the Roman Empire.  The era of the redemption of Israel was announced, contracts were signed and a large quantity of Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage was struck over foreign coins. They built hideouts in caves and did shoddy work building weapons so that the Romans would reject the weapons and return them to the Jews.  These coins include references to "Year One of the redemption of Israel", "Year Two of the freedom of Israel", and "For the freedom of Jerusalem". The Jews of the Parthian Empire fought side by side with their Persian allies and embarked on a series of behind-the -lines guerrilla actions. The Bar Kokhba revolt (Hebrew: מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא ; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.Fought circa 132–136 CE, it was the last of three major Jewish–Roman wars, so it is also known as The Third Jewish–Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt. Alas, Josephus was dead at the time of the second revolt led by Bar Kosiba. Severus' arrival almost doubled the number of Roman troops facing the rebels. The Rabbinic account describes agonizing tortures: R. Akiva was flayed with iron combs, R. Ishmael had the skin of his head pulled off slowly, and R. Hanania was burned at a stake, with wet wool held by a Torah scroll wrapped around his body to prolong his death. The Jews then satisfied themselves with preparing secretly in case a rebellion would later become necessary. At this Temple, he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself. See Talk:Bar Kokhba's revolt for the corresponding discussion. He was known as a man of tremendous physical strength with the ability to uproot a tree while riding a horse or haul back the stone thrown by a Roman catapult. The Romans breached the fort and slaughtered everyone inside, including Bar Kokhba. Then he surrounded Jerusalem and forced them out. From open warfare to rebel defensive tactics, Later relations between the Jews and the Roman Empire, Jerusalem inscription dedicated to Hadrian (129/30 CE), David Goodblatt, 'The political and social history of the Jewish community in the Land of Israel,' in William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, Steven T. Katz (eds. Rome also took control of the appointment of Jewish High Priests.Previous bloody conflicts between the Romans and the Jews, such as the Great Jewish Revolt of … The theory for a major battle in Tel Shalem implies a significant extension of the area of the rebellion - while some historians confine the conflict to Judea proper, the location of Tel Shalem suggests that the war encompassed the northern Jordan Valley as well, some 50 km north of the war's minimal boundaries. This revolt began as small, spontaneous clashes between Jews and Roman forces. '" Some argue that the exceptional number of preserved Roman veteran diplomas from the late 150s and 160 CE indicate an unprecedented conscription across the Roman Empire to replenish heavy losses within military legions and auxiliary units between 133 and 135, corresponding to the revolt. Fought circa 132–136 CE, it was the last of three major Jewish–Roman wars, so it is also known as The Third Jewish–Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt. Gaius Publicus Marcellus, the Legate of Roman Syria, arrived commanding Legio III Gallica, while Titus Haterius Nepos, the governor of Roman Arabia, brought Legio III Cyrenaica. A stone inscription bearing Latin characters and discovered near Betar shows that the Fifth Macedonian Legion and the Eleventh Claudian Legion took part in the siege. In addition, it is generally considered that Legio XXII Deiotoriana took part in the campaign, and was annihilated.  "Ploughing up the Temple", seen as a religious offence, turned many Jews against the Roman authorities. According to Rabbinic sources some 400,000 men were at the disposal of Bar Kokhba at the peak of the rebellion, though historians tend to more conservative numbers of 200,000.  The proximate reasons seem to be the construction of a new city, Aelia Capitolina, over the ruins of Jerusalem and the erection of a temple to Jupiter on the Temple Mount. There are few sources about Bar-Kokhba. The Talmud, for instance, refers to Bar Kokhba as "Ben-Kusiba", a derogatory term used to indicate that he was a false Messiah. In between the first one (see Jerusalem Destroyed) and this one, there was a little known conflict called the Kitos War, which was fought primarily outside Judea.  Several more brief sources have been uncovered in the area over the past century, including references to the revolt from Nabatea and Roman Syria. As a widely traveled emperor, he went to Judea in 130 and visited the ruins of the Jewish temple. He prohibited Torah law and the Hebrew calendar, and executed Judaic scholars. The last phase of the revolt is characterized by Bar Kokhba's loss of territorial control, with the exception of the surroundings of the Betar fortress, where he made his last stand against the Romans. The Zionist youth movement Betar took its name from Bar Kokhba's traditional last stronghold, and David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, took his Hebrew last name from one of Bar Kokhba's generals.  The failure to rebuild the Temple has mostly been ascribed to the dramatic Galilee earthquake of 363, and traditionally also to the Jews' ambivalence about the project. ←Humus sapiens←Talk 01:21, 2 Aug 2004 (UTC) Sexuality. cx; Eusebius "Hist.  The claim is often considered suspect.. ), harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFeldman1990 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFJacobson2001 (, Justin, "Apologia", ii.71, compare "Dial." It was also among the key events to differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism. More than just a leader, a well respected rabbi, Akiva ben Yosef posited the possibility that bar Kokhba was the Jewish messiah. But the Great Revolt and the Bar Kokhba revolt were fought wholly within the Jewish homeland. ... Use complete sentences. Enraged, Bar Kokhba confronted the elderly Rabbi Elazar, kicking him and causing his death. Hostilities broke out in 132. It is estimated that forces from at least 10 legions participated in Severus' campaign in Judea, including Legio X Fretensis, Legio VI Ferrata, Legio III Gallica, Legio III Cyrenaica, Legio II Traiana Fortis, Legio X Gemina, cohorts of Legio V Macedonica, cohorts of Legio XI Claudia, cohorts of Legio XII Fulminata and cohorts of Legio IV Flavia Felix, along with 30-50 auxiliary units, for a total force of 60,000–120,000 Roman soldiers facing Bar Kokhba's rebels. But the Great Revolt and the Bar Kokhba revolt were fought wholly within the Jewish homeland.  It is likely that the Samaritan revolt of 556 was joined by the Jewish community, which had also suffered brutal suppression of their religion under Emperor Justinian.. , rebellion led by Simon bar Kokhba against the Roman Empire. As a result of the revolt the Jewish community in Judea was eliminated, the Roman province of Judea became the province of … This rebellion later became known as the Bar-Kokhba revolt. Tensions continued to build up in the wake of the Kitos War, the second large-scale Jewish insurrection in the Eastern Mediterranean during 115–117, the final stages of which saw fighting in Judea. The Jewish sage Rabbi Akiva, who was the spiritual leader of the revolt, identified Simon Bar Kosiba as the Jewish messiah, and gave him the surname "Bar Kokhba" meaning "Son of a Star" in the Aramaic language, from the Star Prophecy verse from Numbers 24:17: "There shall come a star out of Jacob". As of July 2015 some 350 hideout systems have been mapped within the ruins of 140 Jewish villages. On Lag Ba'Omer, Israeli children celebrate the Jewish rebels' victory over the Romans 2,000 years ago. The fortress was besieged by the Romans in late 134 and was taken by the end of the year or early in 135. Doing so will allow us to determine the similarity of the Bar Kokhba revolt to Roman provincial revolts in general. In 132, a revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from Modi'in across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. Many Jews from the diaspora made their way to Judea to join Bar Kokhba's forces from the beginning of the rebellion, with the Talmud recorded tradition that hard tests were imposed on recruits due to the inflated number of volunteers. The insurrection of the Jews of Cyrene, Cyprus, and Egypt in the last years of the emperor Trajan had not been entirely suppressed when Hadrian assumed the reins of government in 118. Knowledge Base » People & Events » History » Historical Periods & Events » Bar Kochba Rebellion.  Previously it had generally been accepted that the Ninth disappeared around 108 CE, possibly suffering its demise in Britain, according to Mommsen; but archaeological findings in 2015 from Nijmegen, dated to 121 CE, contained the known inscriptions of two senior officers who were deputy commanders of the Ninth in 120 CE, and lived on for several decades to lead distinguished public careers. Severus arrived in 133. “The province was united with Syria to form a single province called Syria-Palestine. Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-135) - The Bar Kokhba revolt was the conclusion of the wars between the Romans and the Jews. Edited by Peter Schäfer. Judea would not be a center of Jewish religious, cultural, or political life again until the modern era, although Jews continued to sporadically populate it and important religious developments still took place there. Deleted this entire section - it anachronistically describes Hadrian as making it clear he was 'gay', a category that didn't exist at the time, and its only source is a … Aharon Oppenheimer, ‘The Ban on Circumcision as a Cause of the Revolt: A Reconsideration,’ Aharon Oppenheimer, התגלית שהוכיחה: מרד בר כוכבא חל גם בשומרון. Despite the reference to Jerusalem, as of early 2000s, archaeological finds, and the lack of revolt coinage found in Jerusalem, supported the view that the revolt did not capture Jerusalem. Vol. He took the title of provincial governor and initiated a massive campaign to systematically subdue Judean rebel forces. Imagine the incredible excitement of those involved in the discovery of the caves when they learned they had finally uncovered the final resting place of Bar-Kokhba and others who were with him. , A popular children's song, included in the curriculum of Israeli kindergartens, has the refrain "Bar Kokhba was a Hero/He fought for Liberty," and its words describe Bar Kokhba as being captured and thrown into a lion's den, but managing to escape riding on the lion's back. Constantine I allowed Jews to mourn their defeat and humiliation once a year on Tisha B'Av at the Western Wall.  Julian's fatal wound in the Persian campaign put an end to Jewish aspirations, and Julian's successors embraced Christianity through the entirety of Byzantine rule of Jerusalem, preventing any Jewish claims. Inside the water system, supporting walls built by the rebels were discovered, and another system of caves was found. Simon bar Kokhba was believed to be the Messiah by Rabbi Akiva, the greatest rabbinical sage of his generation, because he led a successful independence revolt against Rome. The reference to a malevolent Samaritan is, however, a familiar device of Jewish literature.  The best recognized source for the revolt is Cassius Dio, Roman History (book 69), even though the writings of the Roman historian concerning the Bar Kokhba revolt survived only as fragments. , During the 5th and the 6th centuries, a series of Samaritan revolts broke out across the Palaestina Prima province. However, there is only circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change and the precise date is not certain. Works on Aelia Capitolina, as Jerusalem was to be called, commenced in 131 CE. , According to Cassius Dio, 580,000 Jews were killed in the overall operations, and 50 fortified towns and 985 villages were razed to the ground, with many more Jews dying of famine and disease. David Ussishkin: "Archaeological Soundings at Betar, Bar-Kochba's Last Stronghold", in: This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 19:37. Posts about Bar Kokhba revolt written by michelinewalker. Rabbinical literature ascribes the defeat to Bar Kokhba killing his maternal uncle, Rabbi Elazar Hamudaʻi, after suspecting him of collaborating with the enemy, thereby forfeiting Divine protection. More than just a leader, a well respected rabbi. Mohr Siebek et al.  The Gallus revolt came during the rising influence of early Christians in the Eastern Roman Empire, under the Constantinian dynasty. The remaining Jews were angered with all this and in 132 AD a revolt erupted again, led by Simon Bar Kokhba (also known as the Third Romano-Jewis War). The discovery of the Cave of Letters in the Dead Sea area, dubbed as "Bar Kokhba archive", which contained letters actually written by Bar Kokhba and his followers, has added much new primary source data, indicating among other things that either a pronounced part of the Jewish population spoke only Greek or there was a foreign contingent among Bar Kokhba's forces, accounted for by the fact that his military correspondence was, in part, conducted in Greek. There were several differences though between this fight and the first war. Betar, Fall of (8) Bar Kokhba Revolt (Book) By Yosef Eisen. In 351–352 CE, the Jews of Galilee launched yet another revolt, provoking heavy retribution. The Bar Kochba Revolt: A Disaster Celebrated by Zionists on Lag Ba'Omer . Behistun Inscription. But more importantly, this movement had a leader. 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